شرکت پترو براس یکی از پیچیده ترین پروژه های فراساحلی نفتی در آبهای عمیق را در خلیج مکزیک به موفقیت با انجام رسانید. توسعه میدان شنوک و کسکید در خلیج مکزیک. متن انگلیسی ویدیو ضمیمه می باشد.
I have never worked in a, a project so complex, so challenging as this one. >> We’re talking aboutrecord water depths here and we’re talking about a lot of new technology. >> We really pushed the envelope in a lot of disciplines, a lot of components, a lot of systems. >> We’ve been working, deep water for more than 30 years now. [UNKNOWN] is very well prepared for these challenges. >> The cascade [UNKNOWN] progress is one that we can all be proud to be part of. One hundred sixty miles off the Louisiana coast, the FPSO a floating, production, storage and off loading facility sails US1. For the first time. >> We have the partner controls. You have a green deck on the by now. >> Chief prepares for the final test before oil and gas can begin flowing. From wells deep under the sea bed. If the test is successful, Petrogas, a pioneering energy company will complete one of the most complex sub C infrastructures in the Gulf of Mexico . And the first of its kind in US waters. Within the ship, and open to the sea below, a compartment stretches up four decks. A huge buoy is locked inside. Mating the ship to the mooring system, risers, flow lines, and wells on the sea floor. Once connected, the entire sub sea infrastructure can be controlled from the ship. And it’s here where millions of gallons of oil and gas will flow from deep below the earth’s crust. But in the Gulf of Mexico , hurricanes are a constant threat. With wind and waves capable of toppling conventional drilling rigs attached to the sea floor, causing massive losses of equipment. To solve the problem, Petrobras turns to a system that has never been used here before, an FTSO. Moored by a detachable STP buoy. [INAUDIBLE] A submerged troy word production buoy. This is no ordinary buoy. It’s over 81 feet high, nearly 45 feet wide and weighs almost 1200 tons, more than 500 pickup trucks. The STP buoy’s unique features allow the ship to weathervane freely. Turning into prevailing wind or current. Reducing the stress found on stationary structures. And when a hurricane approaches, this system can be disconnected, letting the ship and crew go to safer waters. >> We’ve simulated everything, but until you actually perform a full scale disconnect with the two structures out here together, the [UNKNOWN] buoy, that is, you don’t really know. Until that moment, that it really works. >> And this is the crucial test. >> Four, three, two, one, zero. >> It’s a success. Paving the way to begin pumping oil and gas from the Cascade and Chinook fields at the bottom of the Gulf, where the story began years ago. >> It all started back in 2004 when [UNKNOWN] partners in were partnering through the [UNKNOWN]. Petrobras has been a pioneer in offshore and oil and gas production for over 30 years. Always looking to the future, the companies serve a part of the Gulf of Mexico , and discovered compelling evidence of substantial oil reserves in waters too deep, and too isolated for conventional technology at the time. [SOUND] >> With the company’s long history of ultra deep sea experience and a culture of pushing the boundaries of technology. Peltergras word decided to develop two fields, Cascade and Chinook. They drill exploratory wells, obtaining cores to understand the underlying sediment. Deposited millions of years ago. >> Ore is the first thing that comes with the direct measurement. >> The team finds new hydrocarbon bearing sediments, 17,000 feet down, part of the Deepwater Wilcox Trend. >> The Deepwater Wilcox Trend is a largely untested region. We’ve never produced in these particular sands before in this area of the Gulf of Mexico . The course confirmed the presence of oil-bearing reservoirs at both the Cascade and Chinook fields, and aid in their planning and development. But the exploratory wells are only the beginning. The Wells team has to drill deeper than the company has ever attempted, nearly 9,000 feet underwater. 27,000 feet below sea level. More than nine times the height of the worlds tallest building, the Burj Khaifa. The pressure at the bottom of the wells is around 19,000 pounds per square inch, nearly 1300 times normal atmospheric pressure. And oil temperatures down here are near 250 degrees Fahrenheit. Hot enough to boil water. The decision to extract energy from these new fields wasn’t easy. The company faces massive technological challenges. The Cascade and Chinook fields are among the deepest in the gulf. Beyond the reach of existing pipelines to send the oil to shore. And, this far at sea, a conventional platform would be isolated, vulnerable to the gulf’s notorious storms. Every step of the way will require new thinking, innovation, and planning for every contingency. And a strings of firsts that began with drilling and completing some of the deepest and most complex wells in the world. A key milestone is installing a blowout preventer, or a BOP, on each well. Should anything go wrong, it’s job is to seal the well, preventing the uncontrolled escape of oil and gas . Lowered through the rig’s moon pool, the blowout preventer begins a long two day journey all the way down to the seafloor . After the BOP installed, the well is drilled and lined with up to seven different sizes of casing. Each progressively smaller until it reaches the reservoir. The next stage is completing the wells. >> We’re going to do a three intervals rat packing just on trip up the service. >> It’s a system commonly used in shallower. Wells, but never tried deeper than 12,000 feet. >> We’regoing in deeper waters with more difficult formations and reservoirs to develop. >> In an industry first, Petrogas completes the Cascade and Chinook wells at over twice that depth. 27,000 feet.Pioneering new ways to harvest energy deep sea. Where oil and gas will flow from the wells through a system of flow lines, out to the massive STP buoy and then into the IPSO, where the production fluid will be processed and stored. To get the oil to shore Petrobras brought in 2 purpose built shuttle tankers. The first of their kind in the Gulf. Built in Philadelphia, converted in Charleston, and manned by U.S. crews each is 600 feet long and can transport 330,000 barrels of product. These shuttle tankers set the stage for a new era of energy production . From wells ever farther from shore. Over 160 miles out in the Gulf, the subsea team is building the subsea infrastructure some ۸۱۰۰ feet below. They’ll need to install two 12 mile flow lines from Chinook and two five mile flow lines from Cascade. The seafloor in the Chinook field is marked by deep mega furrows. Some 30 feet deep and more than 170 feet across that would leave flow lines vulnerable to harmonic vibrations caused by current. If the oil, gas, and water mixture inside the pipes were to stop flowing for any period of time, the extreme cold of the deep waters could freeze the mixture. To prevent this the ۹″ line that carries oil gas is nestled inside an outer 14″ protective pipe, field with newly designed insulating nano gel foam technology [SOUND] To reduce vibration, [INAUDIBLE] are welded onto over nine miles of the pipe. On board thedeep water construction vessel hera boulder this special python pipe flow line is fed onto the sea bed. Okay, we’re coming down with the [UNKNOWN] now, we’re outside the tower now. >> It’s the longest run of pipe in pipe flow line ever installed over furrowed terrain. With the flow lines in place on the bottom, the sub c team tackles the next critical phase of the project. Installing the five risers. That will deliver hydrocarbons from the sea floor up to the FPSO . These will be the deepest production risers in the world. To accommodate natural movement of the FPSO the risers are a hybrid design: a vertical steel pipe riser tower extends from the sea floor up to a supporting buoyancy can. Just 700 feet below sea level. A flexible pipe suspended in a catenary then connects to the top of the vertical riser tower to the STP buoy. >> Installation, of course, is challenging as well when installing these [UNKNOWN] in 8,000 feet water depth. That in itself is a big challenge. We have three vessels out here in the field and all the activities. Need to be carefully coordinated. >> Onshore, the command team manages the complicated operations for this installation. In total there are four campaigns. Installing suction piles, building the vertical risers, complete with their buoyancy cans, connecting the flexible jumper. And then installing the riser base jumpers, the final connection between the flow lines and the riser. Now, the deepest production risers in the world, and the first freestanding hybrid risers in the Gulf of Mexico are in place. Meanwhile, other elements in the sub sea infrastructure, are being installed. Manifolds, trees, and pump bases. All were completely assembled on dry land and rigorously tested. Then lowered to the sea floor and connected in carefully choreographed operations. With multiple ships, skilled crew. And precisely control ROVs. >> Well over time, the thousands of pounds of pressure inside the well will decrease, and the oil and gas will need to be boosted, along the many miles of seafloor , to get it up to the surface. >> Pumps on well heads aren’t new but for the first time they’ll be installed horizontally, outside the well on the seabed. Easily accessible for service. This without shutting down production. A pump base is installed in cascade and another one in chinook. Each with two pump cartridges. To monitor and control the sophisticated hardware on the seafloor it takes electrical and hydraulic power. And fiber optics, all delivered through umbilicals. >> Needed three years of research, design and prototype tests. >> With new applications of carbon fiber rods, super duplex tubing technology, and polymer construction. The static umbilicals will lay on the bottom and dynamic umbilicals will connect to the central hub of the turret buoy far above the sea floor. Because of the umbilicals unique size and specifications standard manufacturing equipment required custom modification In all, seven separate umbilicals total over 40 miles. The Chinook power umbilical, at nearly 14 miles is one of the longest in the world. Fully assembled with terminating hardware, this umbilical weighs over 1,000 tons. Nearly twice the weight of a fully loading A380 Airbus. Meanwhile, in Bataan, Indonesia, work is coming to an end on the world’s largest turret buoy. It’s loaded on to a cargo ship. Embarking on a 45 day journey around the world and through the Panama canal. Finally the buoy is on sight above the cascade and chinuk fields. Aboard the helm of Balder, anticipation is high to complete this vital installation. Even if all goes perfectly, it will take four days to install thebuoy, with very step carefully calculated and planned. It can all go wrong with a sudden change in the weather. The sea fastenings are cut, setting the operation in motion. The buoy is lifted from the transport vessel. It must remain at this most vulnerable location. Until other key steps are complete. The clump weight is sent to the bottom. At 330 tons, it will hold the buoy 328 feet below the surface. Now, surface buoys are attached that will mark the STP buoy’s location. And the turret buoy is lowered. Remotely operated vehicles become the teams eyes and hands. Controlling a series of valves to manage the buoy’s descent. A total of 11 mooring lines will keep the buoy safe below the waves during storms. [MUSIC] An integral monitoring system constantly reports the status of the buoy at each mooring line. The STP buoy will be the connection point for the umbilical running from the sea floor to the FPSO . But with the processing vessel still months away, petrovoss engineers devise an innovative way to hang the. Bilicals on the STP Turret Boy. >> We decided to put in the control bilicals directly to the [UNKNOWN] Turret Boy. >> Ready for the final connection upon the arrival of the FPSO . >> That’s all good. Get up there and yank em over. I’ll pull the tension. >> A unique sub sea wench, wrests on top of the boy. Monitored and controlled by ROV’s 150 feet below. It pulls the umbilicals through the buoy and clamps them in place. It’s the first ever diverless, winch attached, ROV umbilical pulling system, and it works without a hitch. The umbilicals are in place, ready to be connected to the FESO when she arrives [INAUDIBLE] Saving valuable time in the final stages of the project. The FPSO enters the Gulf of Mexico , headed for her mooring above the cascade in [INAUDIBLE] Fields.>> So, it’s the first FPSO in U.S. waters. The deepest production facility in the world. [SOUND] Nearing the end of a long journey, the ship began as an oiltanker. [SOUND] At shipyards in China and Singapore, it was transformed into a powerhouse hydrocarbon production facility capable of processing ۱۶ million cubic feet of gas. And 80,000 barrels of oil a day. Converting the ship to include the many necessary processing modules, was no easy task. But just as critical wave tank testing of the ships design makes sure the vessel could safely withstand the wind, waves, and currents of the deep golf. The FPSO sailed with the competence of handling a hundred year storm. [SOUND] Work continued even during the 53 day journey to the Gulf. On board all it’s vessels, on land and under the sea, Petra Gross commitment to safety, throughout this project and every project, is without parallel. A remarkable three million man hours without one incident causing a worker to miss his or her shift. The FPSO pulls the STP Buoy to it’s mating cone inside the vessel [MUSIC] The locking arms click into place and the FPSO becomes the deepest production unit in the world. The first in the US Gulf of Mexico . And a crowning moment of the Cascade in Shanook project. [MUSIC] The crew prepares to open up valves far below on the sea floor. Years of innovation is about to become a reality [SOUND] Switches are flipped. >> We’re gonna open a production mount in a week. >> Roger that. Open, Opening [CROSSTALK]. >> Engines come to life. >> Engineers wait for sign that oiling gas is flowing and that all systems are working perfectly. To open a step 30,the well is open. Good job. >> First oil. [MUSIC] Marking a milestone in Petrograss pioneering exploration of new energy frontiers. ]